27 July 2011

General Handling 7 (Twin)

Total Hours : 181:30

Aircraft : DA42

Registration : 9M-NRX

Instructor : Capt Thant (APAC13M)

Date of flying : 24/07/2011

It was my first time flying with Capt Thant. Previously, I didn't have chance to fly with him even in single engine phase (DA-40). Actually, Capt Thant was assigned at Subang (detachment) but twin engine instructors at Kota Bharu is not enough to cope with the current amount of students.

Basically, for GH 7 exercise, I practiced Engine Failure in Circuits and Engine Failure After Take-off (EFATO). I will explained briefly how it being done in a short while.

One thing I personally don't like about flying Xray is the headset =.= . Whoever flown with NRX may personally agree with me too.

So for this exercise, I did shown on how to recover an engine failure after take off (which also known as asymmetric). Please take note; asymmetric does not necessary to be an engine failure, I was told by Capt Rao, it is the differential power setting between one another. It can be one engine stuck at Maximum power setting and vice versa.

At APFT, simulated engine failure is at around 400feet after you clean your aircraft (which means Flaps up).

C 0ntrol
I dentify
C onfirm
W arn
P ower
D rag
T rim

comes into place.

So after I've done with the above checks, we are required to shutdown the failed engine (to feather it). What is feather? ; in a simple word, the blade is parallel to relative airflow , thus it wont windmill which causes drag. Further info, you can look at Wikipedia.

As for DA42 shutdown procedure, Throttle (dead) IDLE , Engine Master (Dead) Off, Alternator (Dead) off and fuel valve (dead) off.

Once I did this checks, Capt Thant increase the simulated affected engine to 10% to simulate it being feathered.

After settled down with the aircraft, its the time to advised tower (not actual transmit). PAN call has to be made. Power settings is as required to maintain airspeed not below than 100kts at downwind.

Gears and timer for 30seconds are to be made when abeam threshold. Flaps is to be delayed and select to APP when stable to land at 500feet. Its the pilot discretion to land with or without flaps.

I did practiced few times for this and finally landed safely one hour later.

20 July 2011

General Handing 5 & 6 (Twin)

Total Hours : 180:40

Aircraft : DA42

Registration : 9M-NRY

Instructor : Capt Zeenu (APAC06M)

Date of flying : 19/07/2011

Today's lesson was quite interesting. I learned how to feather and un-feather dead engine, the effect of Vmca and the recovery technique and Engine Failure on Approach to land. My partner for today was Shahrin. We went 2hours straight and did running change on the air. I did the take-off part and he did the landing.

As usual, before flight, after checked the aircraft, I start everything as per checklist. Shorten the story, at Holding Point Charlie, Capt Zeenu asked me whether I ever did Overhead Departure. I said Nope. So he showed me how was overhead departure. Interesting. Something different I tried today. We took off Runway One Zero, five hundred feet left turn and still climbing to 2000feet to set course overhead. Radio call slightly different then normal ones.

Capt Zeenu : Arni, once overhead, report to Tower.
Me : Roger sir.

So, once overhead, I made R/T call.

Me : Tower, APAC 06Mike, overhead 2000feet, will call establish Uban..
Tower: APAC 06Mike.

We maintained 2000feet tracked to Uban Training area.Once established, I start with Medium & Steep turns and other normal GH profiles. So today, Capt Zeenu showed the effect of Vmca. What is Vmca?

Vmca in a simple word means, the Minimum speed which aircraft can be control during airborne.

OR in details.

Minimum control speed in the take-off configuration – the minimum calibrated airspeed at which the aircraft is directionally controllable in flight with a sudden Critical engine failure and takeoff power on the operative engine(s).

For Diamond 42 aircraft, the Vmca is around 68kts. At this speed, the aircraft controls become sloppy and slow to response because of low airspeed. Beware that Vmca airspeed is close with Stall speed. 64kts Stall speed in clean configuration.

video
Engine feathered

After being shown with symptoms and effect of Vmca, I've being shown to recover aircraft from Vmca. After satisfied with the practice, Capt Zeenu then showed me the effect of feathering the dead engine. To do this, he must switched off the Engine Master. And yes, I've never did this on single engine because I only had one engine last time. If it doesn't relight, I'm in a big trouble =p.

So, as usual, before feather the engine, Instructor will purposely put one engine on Idle to simulate engine failure. C I C W P D T was the "rhythm" during engine fail. After done with that, we then carried out feathering engine procedures. After the engine feathered, I noticed that the aircraft much more easier to control compared to "Idle" power because of the propeller being feather.

Of course, during training session, instructor will unfeather or restart the engine back for normal ops. Referred to Engine Restart, we then successfully starts the engine and back to normal.


video
As you can see in the video, after the Engine Master turned on, the engine try to start by itself. However, if it fails to do so, then powered engine start can be done

Next exercise was Engine Failure during turn. For this aircraft,the critical engine is on the left. If the left engine fails, much rudder input is required. Basically, engine can fail at anytime of flight. During critical moments such as Take-off and Landing and non-critical phase like cruising. But still, its an emergency. In case engine fail during turn, there are few things to remember:

1)If Right engine fails, and you wanted to make a right turn, the Angle of Bank (AoB) is limited to 20'degrees only.
2)If Right engine fails, and you wanted to make a left turn, the Angle of Bank (AoB) can be increased to 30'degrees

and vice versa.

If the engine fails during approach to land which I think is critical of course, it depends on your height as well. For training purposes, we Go Around with only one engine operative. This is where Vyse (82kts) come into place. Vyse is the best rate of climb with only one engine operative. It is also said that speed that you need to maintain to reduce the height loss in case you cant climb due to weight.

We (Shahrin and I) did practiced this. Since we have 3 POB and full (7hours of endurance), its quite heavy and I can see the aircraft struggling to get some airspeed and rate-of-climb..

Capt Zeenu asked to climb 4000feet for 5mins to practice emergency descent (my favourite). This is the time where I can purposely push the nose down until 20'degrees to achieve 140kts.Initial moment, a slight Negative G's can be feel.

We then landed safely 2 hours later.

Next : GH7 Asymmetric Circuits

18 July 2011

General Handing 3 & 4 (Twin)

Total Hours : 178:40

Aircraft : DA42

Registration : 9M-NRY

Instructor : Capt Zeenu (APAC06M)

Date of flying : 18/07/2011

Weather early in the morning was quite good with visibility around 8KM. I was programmed to fly with Capt Zeenu early in the morning. As usual, pre-flight check is a must before take-off. A complete check from wing tip to wing tip is required to make sure everything in a good shape. No sign of leakage or any unusual debris should be found on the airframe.

Referred to "Twin Engine-Syllabus" by APFT, GH3 basically will practice Circuits and Landing which consists of Normal, Flapless and Low-Level. The other differences are Performance Take-off and Landing which was introduced in GH3.

Normally, aircraft with Auxiliary tank have more endurance than the others. In twin engine, the usable fuel for left and right tank is around 50 us gallons while main tanks + auxiliary tanks will make it around 76.4 us gallons which give 7hours of endurance.

It is part of training to give Pre-Takeoff brief and Departure brief. After cleared for taxi, brake must be check when the aircraft starts moving. Instruments checks must be completed to the left and right depending on your aircraft position. At Holding Point charlie, we were asked to hold due to scheduled departure.

While waiting....

Capt Zeenu : Arni, Can we take off right from charlie? Is there sufficient runway distance available?
Me : Errr...I think cannot sir...
Capt Zeenu : Why? What is the take-off distance required for this aircraft?
Me : . . . . . i'll check after we landed..
Capt Zeenu : It's around 700metres to 800metres. Remember that.
Me : Ok sir copied.
Capt Zeenu: Of course we can safely take off but its no harm we backtrack little bit longer in the event of abort the take off, we have distance to stop.
Me : =)

I didn't expect take off distance question for this aircraft at this stage but yeah, we must know actually. =)

Basically, for Performance take off, Vr still the same at 72kts. However, after Vr, adjust attitude to maintain approx 79kts until 300ft then let the aircraft accelerates to 100kts and carryout after T/o profile as per normal. We did Normal and Flapless circuits initially and Low-level after rejoin back from Bachok.

After 2 touch and go, we went to Bachok, as usual, start with Medium Turns, Steep Turns, Climbing and Descending Turns. Revision for Emergency Descent also being shown today.

For GH4, asymmetric is being introduced. Basically, asymmetric is occur whenever there are differential of thrust from one engine with another which cause the aircraft to yaw initially and roll towards dead engine and worse case scenario will enter spiral dive if no action being taken.

I was introduced with Asymmetric symptoms, actions to be taken such as Identification, Troubleshoots Cx and Shut down Cx.

Identification can be done in a simple and short way
C I C W P D T

C- Control the aircraft, apply sufficient rudder to maintain ball center
I- Identify, dead leg xxx leg, dead engine xxx engine
C-Confirm (Dead Engine throttle foward and back, No change of sound and yaw)
W-Warn instructors/passengers and Cx G1000 warnings
P-Power on Live Engine MAX (DA42)
D-Drag (flaps and Gears up)
T-Trim the aircraft as necessary

After completed the whole sequence, if you are above critical height which is 1000ft, then troubleshoot cx is required followed by shutdown Cx. Remember to make a PAN call and not MAYDAY call.

DA42 ALSIM

Normally Troubleshoot Cx starts with dead engine fuel to check whether fuel is available or not. In case of any leakage. Followed with fuel selector, engine master, ECU,Circuits Breakers,and last is Alternator.

Alternate air (consider)

If the engine cannot be restarted, the engine must be shutdown to feather it. Starts with throttle, Engine Master, Alternator and last fuel selector of the dead engine. Be very careful not to feather the live engine.

I myself having difficulty to maintain direction initially because the rudder was quite stiff even with rudder trim. However, Capt Zeenu showed me his technique of pressing the rudder which I never think of before. Much better. Its easy. Just lift your body up,press your back towards the seat and step on the rudder as required.

That's it. We then rejoin for low-level circuit then safely landed with Performance Landing. =)

Next : GH 5. Asymmetric in Circuits, Appreciation of Vmca

15 July 2011

General Handing 2 (Twin) - GH1inc.

Total Hours : 177:00

Aircraft : DA42

Registration : 9M-NRY

Instructor : Capt Zeenu (APAC06M)

Date of flying : 15/07/2011

RMKS:===GH1 DOF 05/07/2011===9M-NRZ==APAC06M=


It has been past 10days since my last flying DA42 Twin Engine with Capt Zeenu. My previous exercise was General Handling 1, in short called; GH. Basically, not much different with Single Engine DA-40. Cockpit layout is almost the same except the Electric Master is being replaced by a "switch", position of Pitot Heat, and of course starter for Left and Right engine which in the center of left hand seat. Additional, Autopilot (9M-NRY) was also available throughout the flight, but of course, we didn't use during GH.

A slight different on the power settings such as cruise climb,descent, approach and also the Time Reference or also known as a speed bug. In Diamond 42, the rotate speed;Vr (speed where you lift off the nose wheel) is 72knots whereas in DA40, rotate speed was approximately 59kts. Vyse (Best-Rate-of-Climb Single Engine) speed is 82kts. With this airspeed, you can still climb with only one engine operative.

If you are familiar with Diamond 40 cockpit layout and Garmin G1000, I don't think you will have difficulty in Diamond 42 unless you are flying Piper PA28 previously. For startup procedure, as per APFT SOP (Ref:APFT SOP Jan 2011), left engine must be started first followed by right engine. Remember, to wait for at least 45secs before starting right engine. This is to avoid voltage fluctuation from previous start. Normally, while waiting for 45secs, you can set-up your Speed bug as follows:

Vr = 72kts Vyse = 82kts Vx = 79kts
Refer to your instructor for further confirmation

After passing 45secs, check all around clear then start Eng number 2 (Right). Immediately, check for Oil Pressure. Oil Pressure must be in green sector within 3seconds. Thereafter, follow as per checklist.

Basically, I noticed DA42 only requires initial momentum to start taxying and you can idle the power while taxying. Avoid riding or the brakes to prevent it from overheating. Starts your instruments checks to left/right whenever practical. The rudder is slightly heavy on ground and whenever the landing gear is down. You will noticed the different when you lift off with Positive Rate Of Climb and gears up. Rudder slightly softer than before.

We took off safely in the morning around 9am after visibility reported around 6KM. Initially, for one circuit and thereafter to Bachok. As usual, downwind check slightly different from DA40.

Downwind Cx
RT Call
Power 60%
T's P's all green Parking brake is released
Speed check; gears down
Flaps APP
Checked 3green
Instrument Cx
Harness Secured.

Remember, DA42 is way faster than DA40 of course. So you don't have much time to spare here. I did experience myself having not enough time. But slowly, you will get to use with it. After passing threshold, start Timer for 30secs (3wing chord). For Normal circuit, reduce power to 40% and nose down and turn to the right maintaining 90Kts.

Check APPROACH PATH CLEAR
RUNWAY CLEAR or ONE ON
and gears 3 green before LANDING/TAXI lights ON.

Finals Checks, 500feet, stable approach
400feet, 4consideration met. Flaps LDG
Maintain 80kts. Power control Airspeed.

For me I'm having slight difficulty to make the aircraft centreline. My aircraft position is slightly left of centreline. But it is ok if you are correcting. Just a small of correction should be enough.

We did touch and go and proceed to Bachok. Did normal GH exercises such as Medium Turns,Steep Turns, Stall.

New lesson today was : Emergency Descent.

(G1000 Trainer.Disregard HSI)


As explained by Capt Zeenu, Emergency Descent is done when the aircraft is on fire or de-compression (which in this case wont happen.DA42 is unpressurized aircraft). If your engine is on Fire, you need to descent immediately. The reason is; when you are descending, the air become much more denser and your airspeed is high might put off the fire.DA42 doesn't have fire extinguisher or so called "squib". Normally, the Rate-of-Descent is around 3000feet/min to 4000feet/min. Interesting.

Procedures to execute Emergency Descent.
Flaps Up
Gears Down (speed check)
Both throttle idle
Nose down approx 20degrees until achieving 140kts and adjust to maintain 140kts.

The initial nose down was quite interesting. I actually accidentally shouted "fuyoooo" on the radio while descending because of the Negative G's.Haha.

Simulated Attitude for Emergency Descend with G1000 Trainer.Disregard HSI & ASI, it should be higher than 127kts

Upon recovering, 10% of ROD must be calculated. Example. Recover at 1000feet from 4000feet. ROD 3000feet. Which means 300feet before 1000feet = 1300feet you slowly pull up and increase power as airspeed reduces.

That's it for GH2. Next will be GH3. Circuits and Landing. =)

08 July 2011

Rezolles Photography

Alhamdullilah =)

Finally, I managed to create my own Page for Rezolles Photography.

You can find it at facebook.com/rezollesphotography

Currently, I'm still focusing to enhance few things at Rezollesphotography.blogspot.com . Drop by if you have time.

Looking forward for more photoshoot in the future.

Thank you.

01 July 2011

Rezolles Photography Collections

I've updated my Flickr account today. I'm thinking to get more serious in business photography. Soon to have few equipments to suit my need and looking forward for any occasion.

View my Flickr photos at :

Rezolles - View my 'Gong Kedak Airshow' set on Flickriver

I will keep updating my Flickr account from time to time. If you have any question, please contact me here or via Facebok.com/rezolles .

Thank you.